Adherence to a substratum is a characteristic feature of monocyte-macrophages which may be required for several effector functions. Human peripheral blood monocytes selected by adherence were found to readhere preferentially at 1 h to fibronectin or to a biological matrix. There was then a progressive decrease in the number of adherent cells, and by 48 h only 8-20% of monocytes remained adherent. This loss of adherence occurred while monocytes remained viable by criteria such as exclusion of trypan blue or release of lactate dehydrogenase. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) maintained the adherence of cultured monocytes to tissue culture plastic as well as to the biological matrix. This effect was concentration- and time-dependent, and suppressed by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Cellular proteins were labeled after incubation with [35S]methionine. Analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed increased labeling of several distinct proteins in 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated monocytes compared with control monocytes. The increased loss of adherence and decreased overall protein synthesis observed in monocytes incubated at 45 degrees C was partially prevented by preincubation of the cells with 1,25-(OH)2D3. We further evaluated the effects of thermal stress and 1,25-(OH)2D3 on protein synthesis by monocytes, and found that 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the synthesis of heat shock proteins, protected normal protein synthesis, and increased the rate of recovery of normal protein synthesis after the thermal stress. These observations suggest that 1,25-(OH)2D3 influences monocytes by preserving the synthesis of proteins, including those critical for the maintenance of cell adherence.
B S Polla, A M Healy, E P Amento, S M Krane
The capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae type b, polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP), is released from growing organisms during human infection and can be found in body fluids. It binds to untreated erythrocytes. Many patients with invasive infections with this organism develop significant hemolysis, but the mechanism has been unclear. We have found that PRP binds to human erythrocytes in vivo. PRP-coated erythrocytes have a shortened circulation time in mice, but do not lyse spontaneously or fix complement. PRP-coated erythrocytes exposed to antiserum to H. influenzae type b are undamaged in the absence of complement, but are rapidly and effectively lysed in the presence of an intact complement system both in vitro and in vivo in mice. PRP-coated red cells are taken up by liver and spleen. Antiserum to PRP increases hepatic uptake of PRP-coated red cells more than splenic, and appears to induce intravascular, complement-mediated hemolysis, as well as extravascular hemolysis. Patients with invasive infection develop hemolysis when circulating PRP and antibody to PRP are present simultaneously. PRP can sometimes be detected on patient erythrocytes when free PRP is present in serum, but this is an inconsistent finding. The hemolytic anemia that occurs during human infection with H. influenzae type b may be due to absorption of PRP to red cells and immune destruction of sensitized erythrocytes. The process requires an intact complement system; both complement-mediated cell lysis and extravascular hemolysis contribute to red cell destruction.
S B Shurin, P Anderson, J Zollinger, R K Rathbun
Calcium has been proposed as an intracellular second messenger for activation of secretion, phagocytosis, and the oxidative burst of neutrophils. We have examined the role of calcium in human monocyte activation. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated monocytes displayed an increment in cytoplasmic ionized calcium at 31 +/- 6 s and the onset of superoxide production at 61 +/- 9 s. The increase in cytoplasmic calcium invariably preceded the onset of superoxide production. If the external calcium concentration was reduced to less than 28 nM by the addition of 10 mM EGTA, superoxide production was not diminished at 5 min; however, superoxide production decreased thereafter. The Con A-evoked increment in cytoplasmic ionized calcium was blunted upon the addition of EGTA and decreased further with time. Both the production of superoxide and the Con A-evoked increment in cytoplasmic ionized calcium displayed a 50% inhibition after 15 min of calcium depletion and were completely inhibited after 60 min. Total cell calcium fell from 0.7 to 0.5 fmol/cell, and the basal level of ionized calcium fell from 83 to 30 nM after 60 min. Histidine, a strong chelator of divalent cations other than calcium and magnesium, had no effect on monocyte superoxide production or on ionized calcium concentrations, indicating that EGTA inhibition was due to cell calcium depletion. In calcium-depleted cells, Con A did not evoke superoxide production until calcium was restored to the incubation medium. The restoration of calcium to Con A-treated, calcium-depleted monocytes permitted a rapid rise in the cytoplasmic ionized calcium, and the production of superoxide within 9 s. These data suggest that an increase in ionized cytoplasmic calcium is necessary for the activation of monocyte superoxide production by Con A. The rise in ionized calcium in response to Con A results, in part, from an internal redistribution of calcium, which is sufficient to permit superoxide generation.
S P Scully, G B Segel, M A Lichtman
In conscious dogs, phentolamine infusion significantly increased fasting portal vein insulin, glucagon, and decreased net hepatic glucose output and plasma glucose. Propranolol significantly decreased portal vein insulin, portal flow, and increased hepatic glucose production and plasma glucose. Phentolamine, propranolol, and combined blockade reduced glucose absorption after oral glucose. alpha, beta, and combined blockade abolished the augmented fractional hepatic insulin extraction after oral glucose. Despite different absolute amounts of glucose absorbed and different amounts of insulin reaching the liver, the percent of the absorbed glucose retained by the liver was similar for control and with alpha- or beta blockade, but markedly decreased with combined blockade. Our conclusions are: (a) phentolamine and propranolol effects on basal hepatic glucose production may predominantly reflect their action on insulin and glucagon secretion; (b) after oral glucose, alpha- and beta-blockers separately or combined decrease glucose release into the portal system; (c) net hepatic glucose uptake is predominantly determined by hyperglycemia but can be modulated by insulin and glucagon; (d) direct correlation does not exist between hepatic delivery and uptake of insulin and net hepatic glucose uptake; (e) alterations in oral glucose tolerance due to adrenergic blockers, beyond their effects on glucose absorption, can be, to a large extent, mediated by their effects on insulin and glucagon secretion reflecting both hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism.
Z Chap, T Ishida, J Chou, L Michael, C Hartley, M Entman, J B Field
We have examined whether the toxic effects of homocysteine on cultured endothelial cells could result from the formation and action of hydrogen peroxide. In initial experiments with a cell-free system, micromolar amounts of copper were found to catalyze an oxygen-dependent oxidation of homocysteine. The molar ratio of homocysteine oxidized to oxygen consumed was approximately 4.0, which suggests that oxygen was reduced to water. The addition of catalase, however, decreased oxygen consumption by nearly one-half, which suggests that H2O2 was formed during the reaction. Confirming this hypothesis, H2O2 formation was detected using the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of fluorescent scopoletin. Ceruloplasmin was also found to catalyze oxidation of homocysteine and generation of H2O2 in molar amounts equivalent to copper sulfate. Finally, homocysteine oxidation was catalyzed by normal human serum in a concentration-dependent manner. Using cultured human and bovine endothelial cells, we found that homocysteine plus copper could lyse the cells in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that was completely prevented by catalase. Homocystine plus copper was not toxic to the cells. Specific injury to endothelial cells was seen only after 4 h of incubation with homocysteine plus copper. Confirming the biochemical studies, ceruloplasmin was also found to be equivalent to Cu++ in its ability to cause injury to endothelial cells in the presence of homocysteine. Since elevated levels of homocysteine have been implicated in premature development of atherosclerosis, these findings may be relevant to the mechanism of some types of chronic vascular injury.
G Starkebaum, J M Harlan
Pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoids are administered to patients with adrenal insufficiency during operative procedures to prevent hemodynamic instability, cardiovascular collapse, and death. Since these supraphysiologic doses might not be necessary and might have adverse effects, we examined the effects of different doses of glucocorticoids on hemodynamic adaptation during surgical stress in adrenalectomized primates. Sham-adrenalectomized placebo-treated animals served as controls. Adrenalectomized monkeys were maintained for 4 mo on physiologic glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement. The adrenalectomized monkeys were then stratified into three groups receiving, respectively, subphysiological (one-tenth the normal cortisol production rate), physiological, or supraphysiological (10 times the normal cortisol production rate) cortisol (hydrocortisone) treatment. 4 d later a cholecystectomy was performed. The intraoperative hemodynamic and metabolic parameters, perioperative survival rates, and postoperative wound healing were compared. The subphysiologically treated group was hemodynamically unstable before, during, and after surgery and had a significantly higher mortality rate than control. In this group, arterial blood pressure was low, and the cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, and left ventricular stroke work index were all reduced, suggesting decreased cardiac contractility and blood vessel tone. In contrast, the physiologically replaced group was indistinguishable from either supraphysiologically treated animals or sham-operated controls. All groups had similar metabolic profiles and normal wound healing. These findings suggest that the permissive actions of physiologic glucocorticoid replacement are both necessary and sufficient for primates to tolerate surgical stress. Supraphysiological glucocorticoid treatment has no apparent advantage during this form of stress in the primate.
R Udelsman, J Ramp, W T Gallucci, A Gordon, E Lipford, J A Norton, D L Loriaux, G P Chrousos
A new strategy was shown for the manipulation of autoantibody production in humans. Antiidiotypic antibody to human anti-DNA autoantibody was conjugated with neocarzinostatin (NCS), a cytotoxic agent, by using N-succimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate as a coupling agent. Human B cell clones, which produce anti-DNA autoantibodies, were killed by in vitro treatment with antiidiotype (Id)-NCS conjugates, while clones expressing an Id with irrelevant specificity were unaffected. These results indicate that treatment with anti-Id-NCS conjugates can act as a potent and specific means of generating immunosuppression of autoantibody production. This approach will have a significant advantage in aborting clones that are not effectively suppressed for the autoantibodies by anti-Id antibodies alone, and will result in a potential therapeutic treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus.
T Sasaki, T Muryoi, O Takai, E Tamate, Y Ono, Y Koide, N Ishida, K Yoshinaga
The administration of epinephrine to humans increases natural killer (NK) cell activity and numbers. If endogenous catecholamines regulate NK cells, then their activity should be increased by cocaine, an agent that potentiates endogenous catecholamines. We investigated the in vivo effect of cocaine on NK cell activity and on the distribution of lymphocyte subsets, including NK cells. Intravenous cocaine (0.6 mg/kg) produced a three- to fourfold increase in NK cell activity in peripheral blood. The increase was accompanied by a marked and selective increase in circulating NK cells, as identified by the Fc receptor (Leu-11). Normal saline and benzoylecgonine, a major metabolite of cocaine, had little effect on NK cell activity or on levels of Leu-11+ cells. Other lymphocyte subpopulations were not increased by cocaine. The time course of the alterations in NK cell numbers and activity paralleled plasma levels of cocaine. In vitro cocaine did not increase NK cell activity. Our results indicate that cocaine selectively alters the activity and distribution of the NK lymphocyte subset. Because cocaine increases the activity of endogenous catecholamines, these findings suggest that human NK cells are selectively regulated by the sympathetic nervous system.
C Van Dyke, A Stesin, R Jones, A Chuntharapai, W Seaman
Deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) lyase affects the metabolism of leucine as well as ketogenesis. This disorder is one of an increasing list of inborn errors of metabolism that presents clinically like Reye's Syndrome or nonketotic hypoglycemia. Four patients with proven 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency were shown to excrete a new diagnostically specific metabolite. The technique of fast atom bombardment and tandem mass spectrometry revealed that only 3-methylglutaryl-CoA is a substrate for acylcarnitine formation. Neither 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA nor 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA are excreted as acylcarnitines. The excretion of 3-methylglutarylcarnitine may explain, in part, the apparent secondary carnitine deficiency in this disorder. Carnitine supplementation with moderate dietary restrictions may be a useful treatment strategy for this disorder.
C R Roe, D S Millington, D A Maltby
The kidney maintains constancy of body fluid volume by regulating urinary sodium (Na) excretion. In chronic renal failure, the reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is accompanied by an increase in Na excretion per nephron if dietary Na intake is not changed. Reduction in Na intake in proportion to reduced GFR obviates this adaptive increase in tubule Na excretion. To examine the potential role of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in modulating the enhanced Na excretion per nephron in chronic renal failure, we studied rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation on low, normal, and high Na intakes. Urinary Na excretion increased with increasing dietary Na in all groups, and Na excretion per nephron was increased in 5/6 nephrectomized rats as compared with sham-operated rats on the higher Na intakes. Plasma ANP levels were unaffected by dietary Na manipulations in sham-operated rats, but rose progressively in 5/6 nephrectomized rats with increasing Na intake. Despite extensive nephron reduction, however, plasma ANP levels failed to rise in uremic rats on low Na diets and in this group Na excretion per nephron also failed to rise. We conclude that enhanced ANP secretion may play an important role in promoting the adaptive increase in Na excretion per nephron in chronic renal failure. Restriction of dietary Na in the setting of reduced GFR obviates the stimulation of ANP secretion as well as the adaptive increase in Na excretion rate per nephron.
S Smith, S Anderson, B J Ballermann, B M Brenner