The pulmonary collectins, surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D), have been reported to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS), opsonize microorganisms, and enhance the clearance of lung pathogens. In this study, we examined the effect of SP-A and SP-D on the growth and viability of Gram-negative bacteria. The pulmonary clearance of Escherichia coli K12 was reduced in SP-A–null mice and was increased in SP-D–overexpressing mice, compared with strain-matched wild-type controls. Purified SP-A and SP-D inhibited bacterial synthetic functions of several, but not all, strains of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes. In general, rough E. coli strains were more susceptible than smooth strains, and collectin-mediated growth inhibition was partially blocked by coincubation with rough LPS vesicles. Although both SP-A and SP-D agglutinated E. coli K12 in a calcium-dependent manner, microbial growth inhibition was independent of bacterial aggregation. At least part of the antimicrobial activity of SP-A and SP-D was localized to their C-terminal domains using truncated recombinant proteins. Incubation of E. coli K12 with SP-A or SP-D increased bacterial permeability. Deletion of the E. coli OmpA gene from a collectin-resistant smooth E. coli strain enhanced SP-A and SP-D–mediated growth inhibition. These data indicate that SP-A and SP-D are antimicrobial proteins that directly inhibit the proliferation of Gram-negative bacteria in a macrophage- and aggregation-independent manner by increasing the permeability of the microbial cell membrane.
Huixing Wu, Alexander Kuzmenko, Sijue Wan, Lyndsay Schaffer, Alison Weiss, James H. Fisher, Kwang Sik Kim, Francis X. McCormack
Neurogenic inflammation is believed to originate with the antidromic release of substance P, and of other neurokinins encoded by the preprotachykinin A (PPT-A) gene, from unmyelinated nerve fibers (C-fibers) following noxious stimuli. Consistent with this concept, we show here that selective sensory-fiber denervation with capsaicin and targeted deletion of the PPT-A gene protect murine lungs against both immune complex–mediated and stretch-mediated injuries. Reconstitution of PPT-A gene–deleted mice with WT bone marrow does not abrogate this protection, demonstrating a critical role for PPT-A gene expression by sensory neurons in pulmonary inflammation. Surprisingly, reconstitution of WT mice with PPT-A gene–deficient bone marrow also confers protection against pulmonary injury, revealing that PPT-A gene expression in hemopoietic cells has a previously unanticipated essential role in tissue injury. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a critical synergy between capsaicin-sensitive sensory fibers and hemopoietic cells in neurokinin-mediated inflammation and suggest that such synergy may be the basis for a stereotypical mechanism of response to injury in the respiratory tract.
Mara Chavolla-Calderón, Meggan K. Bayer, J. Julio Pérez Fontán